QUARRY AND AGGREGATES
Economic perspective of the European Aggregates Sector
The report was prepared by the Spanish Aggregates Federation (FdA) from the latest available statistics (2013) compiled by the Economic Committee of the European Aggregates Association (UEPG) from 39 European Countries. In Europe (EU- 28 + EFTA) in 2013, 2,609 billion tons of aggregates were produced by 14,753 companies in 24,831 extraction sites, with 204,203 workers. The European sector has accumulated a global fall of -29.27% between 2007 and 2013. However, this trend is already changing and a slight growth is expected for the next years. In 2013, Spain was in ninth place in Europe, in terms of total consumption of aggregates, and in the last place for aggregate consumption per inhabitant per year out of the 39 countries analysed.
Cements with FCC: compliance to Standard specifications
This work studies the viability to recycle two spent cracking catalyst, one collected in the electrostatic precipitators, and the other, is the replaced catalyst, as active additions to cement. Chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterizations were carried out, by means XRF, XRD, and SEM. Finally, cements with different percentages of FCC were studied with the purpose of verifying the compliance to the European Standards. The results obtained show the possibility of reusing this industrial by-product as active addition for the manufacture of commercial portland cements.
Equipment and measuring systems for testing the quality of concrete, mortar and additives
The quality of cement-based building materials such as mortar and concrete can be divided into three fields: durability, dimensional stability and workability. While the testing methods for testing the strength by compression testing machines has been standardized both nationally and all over the world for decades, tests and testing methods for the durability, dimensional stability and workability are not standardized at all, or the procedures differs from nation to nation. A lot of testing methods are very controversially discussed among experts and many arguments are infl uenced by an industrial, political and financial background. In this article testing equipment and methods are presented which are partially described in rules and standards. However, none of these testing methods has been established in a valid EN or ISO standard up to now.
AIDEPLA launches a new software to design hollow core slabs
The Spanish hollow core slab research and development association (AIDEPLA) launches its new application for the mechanical analysis of precast prestressed hollow core floors, available on its website. This software has been developed with the collaboration of the industrial construction unit of the department of construction engineering of Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV). The application has been developed for different user profiles. An introduction of this type of calculations is provided for non-expert users and on the other side a complete analysis for different project situations can be obtained for expert users.
COP 21 Paris: an Agreement for a big step forward on global climate change mitigation
By holding the COP21 in Paris from November 30 to December 12, 2015, it´s continue to work for a binding international agreement to limit the temperature rise beyond 2 °C above levels the preindustrial era. After two weeks of intense negotiations it has reached the Paris Agreement which is legally binding, although the text does not collect national contributions. Therefore, it has established a flexible framework in which all countries participate according to their national contributions, given that the leadership of developed nations and, gradually, developing nations take greater responsibility. The treaty includes a long-term goal of a peak in greenhouse gas emission as soon as possible with a view to achieving a “balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century”. The result has a great diplomatic work behind the United Nations over the past year and a big boost starting on the fi rst day of the COP, with a meeting of Heads of State and Government. All it coordinated with a French Presidency, which has done well, and resulting in approval of the Agreement by consensus and providing NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) from 185 countries. All the work done by the countries and through the efforts of coordination
of the French EU Presidency has resulted in the approval of the Paris Agreement by consensus and providing NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) from 185 countries.
The new ISO 14001: environment grow in weight for companies
The recently published new version of ISO 14001 reflects the growing importance of environmental management in the business processes of organizations. ISO 14001 is the worldwide reference for proper environmental management and it’s used by more than 300,000 organizations worldwide. There are five main innovations in the standard: greater commitment of top management; increased presence of environment management in business strategy; greater environmental protection; life cycle approach and increase of the effectiveness of the communication. The text also address the commitment of the cement sector with sustainability and environment.
An infrastructure with global relevance
Cadiz premiered on 24 September the third access to the city, infrastructure aimed at improving mobility in the metropolitan area thar fly over the bay of Cádiz by the Constitución 1812 bridge. This colossal structure of steel and concrete, which beat several national and international records, is the last great exponent of the excellence of engineering in Spain.