Procedural handbook for cement kiln final optimization
Simplifi cation of processes and operations that we have developed technology without commercial influences in the cement kiln, has established a huge optimization potential technical, economic and ecological. Their application and use in projects developed over the past 20 years in most Latin American countries have allowed us to prioritize objectives, improve designs and standardize procedures,
clearly and precisely defining the actions that will achieve satisfactory levels of production and yields in any of cement kiln world. Being aware that in any industrial plant human resources is always the most important factor, in this article we put our technology available to all speaking spanish engineers and technicians in cement plants around the world.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 1
Characteristics of burner of high momentum for rotary kilns
FlexiflameTM burners are the most advanced technology developed by Greco for rotary kilns firing pulverized fuel. Using three shaping airflows and a unique design - two of the airflows rotate
to enfold the solid fuel injection flow- it allows, throgh simple procedures, to optimize complex fuel fi ring and great control over NOx emissions. FlexiflameTM burners are developed to meet, with flexibility and without any efficiency loss, the specific necessities of rotary calciner kilns used to make white and grey clinker, lime and pozzolana, among others products.
EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS 2
Plastic shrinkage cracking reduction of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete
Plastic shrinkage cracking test have been performed on polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete to evaluate the effectiveness of the fibers in controlling shrinkage induced cracking. Commercially available polypropylene fibers were investigated at dosages rates varying from 0.1% to 0.5%. The most commonly
method of plastic shrinkage testing using a ring type specimen was used. In this method, a fiber reinforced concrete ring is cast on a restrained ring apparatus and the assembly is subjected to a drying environment to induce cracking. The drying environment with a constant relative humidity of 40%, a constant wind velocity of 4 m/s and constant temperature of 20 °C were studied. Length and widths of the resulting cracks
on the ring specimens were monitored. Results indicate that polypropylene fibers are eff ective in controlling plastic shrinkage in concrete. Also, it was found to be very effective not only in reducing the widths and lengths of the shrinkage cracks but also in reducing the crack areas. The use of 0,1% of fibers resulted
in an average reduction of 60% in number and crack area, whereas the use of 0.5% of fi bers was found to be successful in combating plastic shrinkage cracking in all concrete mixes tested.
Characterization, problems and quality control of materials in the North of Algeria for the development of structural concrete
This study describes the characteristics of the materials base for the elaboration of structural concrete in the North of Algeria. The low quality of materials in the origin control leads to a lack of homogeneity in the properties of the same, failing in many cases with the product specifications or the European regulations to implement. Thermal changes due to the climate of this area hamper the development of concrete. This article like the added problem in the elaboration of concrete in these regions and their possible solutions applied a: control of materials, measures to high temperatures, the skeleton design granular, commissioning work and economic optimization. A concrete is designed with an compressive strength to 28 days of 30 MPa with skeleton discontinuous and with an optimized consumption of additives which carries a price euro/m3 of concrete manufactured less than other raised designs.
Characterization of wastes to be used as alternative fuels and raw materials
The use of alternative fuels and raw materials derived from wastes is an increasingly common practice in the cement sector. The owner of the recovery installation must take all necessary precautions regarding the delivery and reception in order to prevent or at least limit as far as possible, direct risks to health and safety and to the environment and to ensure that the use of waste do not have any negative impact on the production process or the quality of the final product. Despite the difficulties associated with the fact that wastes are complex mixtures, the obligations concerning the prevention of occupational and environmental risks as well as the prevention of possible impacts on the quality or the process, can be fulfi lled by following a few key steps that will allow to obtain all the relevant information prior to use any waste as fuel or alternative material.
The first spanish experience in concrete pavement of two layers
In June 2006, the Public Company GISA, within the Department of Planning and Public Works of the Generalitat of Catalonia, awarded CEDINSA the concession for the project of constructing and operating the works of widening of the C-17 in the stretch Vic-Ripoll. FCC as a participant in the UTE (Temporary Union of Companies) designated to the project, with the objective of deepening the knowledge in new technologies for rigid pavements, proposed to the Generalitat of Catalonia, take the opportunity to run an experimental section, using a new technology of setting the concrete, proposing the test to run between the Pk 8430 and Pk 9350 for such work.