CEMENT Chinese Standards specifications cements China is the biggest cement manufacturer accounting a production of 2.184 billion tons in 2012. It also has produced more than 30 standards related to cement specifications. This paper reviews the standard evolution during the last ten years. Clinker composition as an indicator of sulphate resistance: chemical versus mineralogical analysis Currents European legislation limits the C3A content in clinkers from which sulfate-resistanting cement may be manufactured. While this content in clinkers is found by applying the Bogue equations to their chemical composition, the properties of cement are defined by its mineralogy, not its elemental composition. The present study explored the possibility of using Rietveld quantitative XRD analysis of clinkers before and after applying the Takashima procedure (chemical separation method by dissolution in methanol-salicilic acid) as a tool for classifying the sulfate resistance of commercial cement. To this end, a comparison was drawn between an industrially cooled clinker and the same clinker, modified by heating it to 1500 ºC and then gradually cooled to 1000 ºC that were used to study cement mortar durability in the presence of sulfates. The reliable quantitative results obtained showed that both clinkers studied would qualify as components for sulfate-resistant CEM I cements, opposite to Bogue. EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS A new solution in grinding clinker Cemengal has worked to find the best solution to fit the current market conditions. After more than a year of conceptualisation, design and optimisation, in March 2012 the company was finally able to present the Plug&Grind®: a complete cement grinding and packing station, assembled in Spain with European components, shrunk to fit eight 40 ft. containers and able to produce up to 100.000 tpa of standard OPC cement or 60.000 tpa of slag. It can be delivered FOB seven months after purchase – and it can be moved. The Plug&Grind®, with very low investment costs, is a solution for cement producers to test new markets or fill up niches and for ready-mix producers and cement traders to vertically integrate their businesses. The system represents an interesting investment option thanks to its small footprint, simplicity of use and maintenance and portability. The majority of spare parts will be available off the shelf around the globe. Finally, being designed to be “self-sufficient” and containerised, as an exit strategy, the plant can simply be sold. The Plug&Grind® leverages the common market constraints and turns them into opportunities. Local scarcity on the offer side, micro-distribution complexity, fiscal issues, or limited yet persistent demand all become competitive advantages for the owner of a Plug&Grind®. These conditions, which normally represent issues for standard business models based on large scale plants are addressed and solved by this system. They are no longer issues; they are key elements to a successful alternative approach to cement production. The first two units will start to produce cement this summer in Africa and the Middle East. And four more units will start to work next spring in different continents. Reducing investment costs and cutting emissions with FLSmidth’s 10m-long filter bag technology FLSmidth’s fabric filters and long filter bags are designed to reduce emission levels, provide lower differential pressure, lower compressed air consumption rates, as well as prolong filter bag life. Extensive testing has demonstrated that the 10m-long filter bags have a smaller environmental footprint, lower capital outlay and operation and maintenance costs, than any other filter bag. Little wonder, then, that FLSmidth 10m-long filter bags are becoming an increasingly popular choice for cement and minerals plant owners. New developments in production of block machines prove its efficiency in the Republic of Kosovo The war in the Balkans in the 90’s left a trail of suffering and material damage. Many of those who had to leave everything back to their towns and villages. Now peace rules and they work full of pride for the reconstruction of their new country, the Republic of Kosovo. Many of those who have returned home have brought with them new skills, a strong business spirit and the desire to do all in a really different way. Among them are, for example, Samir Rexha and her wife, Anne-Katrin Beuthel, who in 1999 returned to Kosovo from Germany, founding Rexha construction company in 2000. Rexha has participated in numerous public projects such as schools, hospitals, office buildings and has also built roads, bridges and pedestrian areas… Today, the company employs over 90 people. CONCRETE New product construction regulation Construction Products Regulation is to ensure reliable information on construction products in relation to their performances. This is achieved by providing a “common technical language", offering uniform assessment methods of the performance of construction products. These methods have been compiled in harmonised European standards and European Assessment Documents. This common technical language is to be applied by the manufacturers when declaring the performance of their products, but also by the authorities of Member States when specifying requirements for them, and by their users (architects, engineers, constructors…) when choosing the products most suitable for their intended use in construction works. The Construction Products Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 (CPR) which repeals the Construction Products Directive (EU) No 89/106/EEC (CPD), was adopted on 9 March 2011. As part of the Better Regulation initiative, it intends to bring about clarification of the basic concepts and of the use of CE marking; simplification of the procedures, so as to reduce the costs incurred by enterprises, in particular SMEs; and increased credibility for the whole system. The CPR is applied since last 1 July 2013. Other relevant aspects are focused on the notification and designation processes of the Notified Bodies (NB), the Technical Assessment Bodies (TAB) or the National CPR product contact points. Precast concrete industry is surely one of the most active sectors due to the high-level of standardization that their product have, as a way to guarantee a minimum and common set of quality within the European construction market. SUSTAINABILITY Spanish Monitoring Guide of GHG in the cement sector 2013-2020 The Commission Regulation (EU) Nº 601/2012 is the third regulation which establishes the way in which the green house gas emissions should be monitored and reported in installations under the European Trade Scheme. Some changes of the Regulation are relevant. The new tier system, the assessment of uncertainty, the methodologies of sampling in relation to the justification of unreasonable costs, are the main developments of the new regulation. This article reviews how these requirements have been included in a new edition of the Spanish Monitoring Guide of GHG in the cement sector in accordance with Regulation (EU) Nº 601/2012, that adapts the changes to the Spanish industrial reality. The Guide includes in addition two new proposals: the first one about the monitoring of solid recovered fuels and the second, on the use of fixed biomass fraction of waste tyres used as alternative fuels in cement plants. WORKS Construction of shell-like footbridges for the `Madrid Rio´ Project by applying advance concrete technologies Acciona Infrastructures built two shell-like footbridges for the `Madrid Río´ Project. These footbridges are characterized by having a cover with a double curvature of dimensions 49, 08 m in length, and a span of 43, 46 m. In this worksite, the Innovation Division of Acciona Infrastructure applied two advance materials technologies with remarkable success: application of self-compacting concrete in extreme conditions of temperature and the quick stripping of the formworks by using our maturity control equipment ; both technologies were developed at the R&D+i Acciona Center in Madrid. The self-compacting concrete designed incorporates in its composition a black pigment to obtain the aesthetic appearance required by the architect of the Project.
Redaccion Cemento Hormigón -
Redacción Revista - Cemento Hormigón